A Local Society in Transition The Henryków Book and Related Documents PIOTR GÓRECKI This book consists of an annotated translation of a history of a Cistercian monastery known as the Henryków Book and of some thirty charters further illustrating that history. A substantial historical essay introduces these materials. The monastery situated at Henryków, in the duchy Silesia, was founded and consecrated between 1222 and 1228, and endowed with an estate in those years and continuously thereafter. The Book was composed at the monastery itself, in three sections: the first and the third by its third abbot, Peter, in or soon after 1268, the second by an anonymous monk, in or soon after 1310. The charters were issued, between 1225 and 1310, by the dukes of Silesia and by others interested in the monastery and its estate: the bishops of Wrocâaw and Poznaľ, the monastery’s neighbors or donors, and their descendants. Both the Henryków Book and the charters encompass a range of historical topics: the foundation of the monastery, and the resulting political and legal relationships; the history of each of the dozens of holdings included in the monastery’s estate; and the full roster of the bishops of Wrocâaw, the diocese where the monastery was situated. The second occupies most of the work in its entirety, making the Henryków Book a history of a substantial population, society, economy, pattern of lordship and power, spanning well over one full century before the work’s final redaction – in the words of the title, a local society in transition. The monastery’s foundation and its political implications are treated specifically in the first section of the Book, which is therefore an excellent entrée into a local world of politics and power centered upon the monastery. These and related subjects are explored in detail by the essay that precedes the translation, which is designed as an independent introduction to contemporary medieval Poland as well as to the sources; they are further contextualized by the charters, which offer supplementary, and sometimes explicitly varied, perspectives on the events and relationships described in the Henryków Book. STU D I ES AN D T EX TS 155 A Local Society in Transition The Henryków Book and Related Documents PIOTR GÓRECKI PONTIFICAL INSTITUTE OF MEDIAEVAL STUDIES Library and Archives Canada Cataloguing in Publication Górecki, Piotr, 1955– A local society in transition : the Henryków book and related documents / Piotr Górecki. (Studies and texts ; 155) Annotated translation of the Liber fundationis Claustri Sancte Marie Virginis in Heinrichow. Includes bibliographical references. ISBN–13: 978–0–88844–155–3 ISBN–10: 0–88844–155–X 1. Liber Fundationis Claustri Sancte Marie Virginis in Heinrichow. 2. Church lands – Poland – Henryków (Waâbrzych). 3. Cistercian monasteries – Poland – Henryków (Waâbrzych) – History. I. Title. II. Title: Henryków book. III. Series: Studies and texts (Pontifical Institute of Mediaeval Studies) ; 155 HD729.5.H45G67 2006 943.8´52 © 2007 Pontifical Institute of Mediaeval Studies 59 Queen’s Park Crescent East Toronto, Ontario, Canada M5S 2C4 MANUFACTURED IN CANADA C2006–905995–0 To Alan E. Bernstein and Richard Hellie Contents Acknowledgments ix Abbreviations xi The Henryków Book and Its Contexts 1 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 The importance of the sources 1 The purpose, genre, and structure of the Henryków Book 13 The Henryków Book: The contexts of power and of writing 27 Economic and demographic contexts: Agriculture and towns 36 Political contexts: Lords, counts, knights, and dukes 57 Political contexts: Religious groups and the institutional Church 73 Transmission and selection of the sources 86 The Henryków Book Book One 91 Book Two 147 The Bishops of Wrocâaw 194 Supplementary Documents Relating to the Henryków Monastery 203 I Politics of the monastic foundation: Alternative views 203 II Powerful neighbors of the Henryków monastery: Coexistence, conflict, alliance 212 III Family histories, property divisions, alienations, and disputes 222 Bibliography 241 Maps and Genealogical Chart 260 Map 1: The Macro Region: Western Poland, Eastern Germany 260 Map 2: Western Poland 261 Map 3: Silesia 262 Map 4: Central Silesia 263 Map 5: The Henryków Region 264 Genealogical Chart: The branches of the Piast dynasty documented in the Henryków Book 265 Index 266 Acknowledgements This book has been in the making for some time – since autumn 1983, to be exact – and has many more debts than can properly be acknowledged. During the period of its completion at the University of California, Riverside, I have greatly benefitted from a close reading, critique, and encouragement by Lucille Chia, Warren Brown, Patrick Geary, Richard Godbeer, Paul Knoll, and Grzegorz Myœliwski, and by five exceptionally talented students, Christopher Balsz, Claire Clement, Christine Harker, Allison Henry, and Melanie Maddox. I am also very grateful for the comments by the anonymous readers of the Pontifical Institute of Mediaeval Studies, and by the Institute’s editor, Fred Unwalla, whose role in substantive and editorial matters has been more helpful than I can begin to say. As on earlier occasions, I thank Linda Bobbitt, associated with the UCR Creative Design Services for producing the genealogical chart and the maps; and am very grateful to the J. Paul Getty Research Institute for permission to use a striking image for the cover of the book. I am also enormously indebted to a group of students which is, of course, too large to list by name, but whose imprint – collective yet ultimately individual – has shaped everything about this work. As the finished version of the translation took shape, I continuously used it as a primary source in a wide range of survey and undergraduate seminar courses at UCR; in late 1998, as a basis of a graduate seminar at the Department of Medieval Studies of the Central European University in Budapest in late 1998; and as material in a team-taught course in the Summer University at the same institution in July 2005. These experiences have been invaluable, and I want to thank the students and colleagues at both institutions. I am especially grateful to János Bak, who generously invited me to Budapest to teach the graduate seminar at CEU, and encouraged me to teach at the Summer University some years later. On a related note, let me acknowledge an important article concerning a suject bearing on this book, written by a graduate of CEU, Grzegorz Ůabiľski, “A Pre-Cistercian Settlement of a Future Monastic Site: The Case of Henryków,” Quaestiones Medii Aevi Novae 10 (2005), 273–302, to which I obtained access after this book went to press. Renata and Ania, as always, are present here in all kinds of ways, and so this work is yet another modest tribute to them. During the course of its writing and revision, my parents, Danuta and Jan Górecki, were a source of inspiration and strength, and a collective role model; excerpts of the was the last piece of prose by me on which my father commented before succumbing to serious illness. This brings me to some areas of gratitude that go back to the beginnings – of my work as a medievalist, and of this book. The Henryków Book’s theme of beginnings prompts me to thank two extraordinary teachers and friends, Robert Bartlett and the late Gerald Gunther. Finally, the book reflects my immeasurable gratitude to Alan Bernstein and Richard Hellie – Alan, for enabling me, during one annus mirabilis at Stanford University, to switch gears from a career path to a calling; Richard for welcoming me to the University of Chicago in 1983, introducing me to the value of source translation with his own work on the Muscovite Ulozhenie, and directly inspiring me to undertake this translation. I am happy and honored to dedicate this book, jointly but to each in its fullness, to them. Abbreviations The following list provides abbreviations and sigla used for frequently cited works. Full details can be found in the Bibliography. Grodecki, Liber (1949) Grodecki, Liber (1991) Lex.MA. Niermeyer P.S.B. Piastowie Rodowód S.P. S.U., 1 S.U., 2–5 S.U., 6 S.Sp. Grodecki, Roman, trans. and ed. Księga henrykowska Grodecki, Roman, trans. and ed. (with a new introduction by Józef and Jacek Matuszewski) Liber Fundationis Lexikon des Mittelalters Niermeyer, J. F. Mediae Latinitatis Lexicon Minus Polski Sâownik Biograficzny Szczur, Stanisâaw and Krzysztof Oůóg, ed. Piastowie Leksykon biograficzny Jasiľski, Kazimierz, Rodowód Piastów œlĊskich. Plezia, Marian, ed. Sâownik âaciny œredniowiecznej w Polsce Appelt, Heinrich, ed. Schlesisches Urkundenbuch, vol. 1 Irgang, Winfried, ed. Schlesisches Urkundenbuch, vol. 2–5 Irgang, Winfried, and Daphne Schadenwaldt, ed. Schlesisches Urkundenbuch, vol. 6 Sâownik Staropolski