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2000, Experiments in Fluids

2017 •

Refractive indices of different concentrations (5 ppm up to 200 ppm) of reference chemical solution (Fe(NO3)3) Nonahydrate were determined with an accuracy of ±10-5, the Brix of these chemicals were measured by using Digital multi-wavelengths (refractometer DSR-λ). Practically, the refractive indices of these solutions have been measured as a function of temperatures in the spectral visible range 0.4-0.7 μm; with increasing wavelengths and with increasing temperature the refractive index decreased monotonically. The refractive indices are increasing with increasing concentrations. Also, the Brix of this solution have been measured as a function of temperature (20 οC up to 30 οC) with wavelengths in the same visible spectral range. The Brix values are used as a tool of concentration of these chemicals samples. The empirical formula between the concentration and the Brix of these chemical are applied.

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A chemical structure based model for the estimation of refractive indices of organic compounds2014 •

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Applied Optics

Imaginary part of the refractive index of sulfates and nitrates in the 0.7-2.6-µm spectral region1997 •

2010 •

The modeling of the refractive index for binary aqueous solutions of boric acid, sodium chloride, potassium chloride, sodium sulfate, lithium sulfate, and potassium sulfate, as well as ternary aqueous solutions of boric acid in the presence of sodium sulfate, lithium sulfate, or potassium chloride, is reported. The refraction index was represented by molar refraction. It was described as the sum of solutes’ partial molar refraction and solvent molar refraction. The solutes’ partial molar refraction was estimated from the molar refraction of the binary solutions. The excess molar refraction for these systems was described with the equation of Wang et al. The polarizability of the solutes present in the studied systems was estimated using the Lorenz–Lorenz relation. The results showed the model is appropriate for describing the systems studied; the interactions of boric acid, sodium, potassium, lithium, chloride, and sulfate ions with water molecules are relevant to explain the molar ...

E-Journal of Chemistry

Theoretical Evaluation of Refractive Index in Binary Liquid Mixtures2005 •

The density and refractive index (RI) for four binary liquid mixtures: diethyl malonate + dimethylformamide (DEM+DMF), diethyl malonate + Hexane (DEM+HEX), diethyl malonate + tetrahydrofuran (DEM+THF), diethyl malonate + 1,4-dioxane (DEM+DO) have been measured. The experimental values are compared with those calculated from Lorentz-Lorentz, Heller, Newton and Gladstone -Dale mixing rules.

Experiments in Fluids 28 (2000) 282—283 ( Springer-Verlag 2000
A simple model for the refractive index of sodium iodide aqueous solutions
T. L. Narrow, M. Yoda, S. I. Abdel-Khalik
282
Abstract A model for predicting the refractive index of sodium
iodide (NaI) aqueous solution n as a function of temperature
N!I
T, NaI concentration c and wavelength j was determined
for moderate parameter variations. The equation accurately
predicted the salt concentration required to match n to the
N!I
refractive index of Pyrex n .
P
1
Introduction
Over the last two decades, nonintrusive optical diagnostic
techniques for obtaining quantitative experimental flow data
have become standard. These techniques require optical access
to both illuminate and image the flow; all solid surfaces in the
region of interest must therefore be refractive index-matched
to the working fluid to obtain accurate, undistorted images.
Budwig (1994) (among others) tabulates the refractive index
of several transparent solids and liquids. A commonly used
working fluid with adjustable refractive index is an aqueous
solution of NaI. Kadambi et al. (1988) used an index-matched
mixture of silica gel particles (refractive index 1.443) and 50%
NaI solution to model coal—water slurries; by varying c from
0—60% and T from 20—40°C, they obtained 1.33On O1.487.
N!I
An aqueous NaI solution was used to study the flow in
microchannels within a horizontal Pyrex seven-rod fuel bundle
(rod diameters D\0.318 cm spaced at a pitch-to-diameter
ratio of 1.15 in a 1.064 cm ID circular housing) similar to those
used in the Accelerator Production of Tritium design (Narrow
1998). Nonintrusive optical techniques were the only possibility for measuring velocity profiles in the narrow dimensions
(hydraulic diameter D +1 mm) of the microchannels.
h
For light passing through a circular rod of diameter D and
refractive index n]Dn (Dn@n) immersed in a fluid with
refractive index n, geometry and Snell’s Law give that the
angular deviation of the light ray d is twice the difference
between the angles of incidence h and transmission h :
i
t
d\2Dh !h D, where sin h \[1](Dn/n)] sin h . The maximum
t
i
i
t
angular deviation per rod (note that a typical light ray passes
through two or three rods in the seven-rod bundle) is 3° for
*n/n\0.005 and h \70°.
i
To ensure good optical access throughout the rod bundle,
the indices of refraction of the working fluid and rod bundle
were matched within the measurement error of 0.3%. Over
several days of experiments, changes in T due to ambient
temperature fluctuations, variations in c due to evaporation
and changes in j from using different light sources (e.g.
argon-ion lasers and white strobe lights), all changed the
refractive index of the solution. A simple model to predict
these changes, based partially upon the results of Kadambi
et al. (1988), was therefore developed.
2
Experimental results
The index of refraction of NaI solution, n , depends on
N!I
(T, c, j). An Abbe refractometer (Bellingham & Stanley
Model 60/HR) was used to measure n for T\20—353C,
N!I
c\55—58.5%, and j\589.3 nm (the sodium D line) and
632.8 nm (helium-neon laser wavelength). The solutions
contained 0.1% (w/w) sodium thiosulfate (Na S O ) to avoid
2 2 3
discoloration due to I~ formation.
3
n varies linearly with T over a moderate range of
N!I
temperatures, and increases with c (Kadambi et al. 1988).
Based on these results and the Cauchy dispersion relation,
which gives Dn (j)Jj~2 (Pedrotti and Pedrotti 1987), the
experimental data, along with Kadambi’s results, were curve-fit
with linear regression to the following equation:
n (T, c, j)\1.252[(2.91]10~4 3C~1) T
N!I
](0.365) c](5542 nm2) j~2 .
Received: 30 July 1998/Accepted: 14 December 1998
T. L. Narrow, M. Yoda, S. I. Abdel-Khalik
Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering
Georgia Institute of Technology
Atlanta, GA 30332—0405 USA
Correspondence to: M. Yoda
This research for the Accelerator Production of Tritium Project was
supported by Westinghouse Savannah River Company under ERDA
Task Order d97-089.
(1)
Eq. (1) fits all the data with a standard error of 8]10~4 and
a regression coefficient R2\0.996.
Figure 1 shows n (T ): experimental data (points) and
N!I
model predictions from Eq. (1) (lines) at c\57% for j\589.3
and 632.8 nm are presented along with the Kadambi’s data
at c\47%, 51%, and 55% for j\589.3 nm. Figure 2 shows
n (c); data (points) and predictions (lines) are shown
N!I
at T\20°C for j\589.3 and 632.8 nm and at T\253C, 303C
and 353C for j\589.3 nm (Ka88). The experimental data
presented here are averages over several measurements and
have a standard deviation of about 5]10~3.
ranges typical of ambient conditions. The model was used to
predict the concentration required to match the refractive
index of solid Pyrex; the 54.5% NaI solution given by the
model matched n to within 5]10~3. This model gives us the
P
capability to ‘‘tune’’ (by adjusting c, for example) n to match
N!I
several transparent plastics and glasses over a commonly used
range of temperatures and wavelengths.
References
Fig. 1. Plot of n vs. T. Our experimental data for c\0.57 are
N!I
denoted by the symbols (], ]). The Kadambi et al. (1988) data at
j\589.3 nm are denoted by filled symbols (j, d, m). The model
predictions from Eq. 1 are plotted as lines; the legend gives the (j, c)
values for each line
Fig. 2. Plot of n vs. c. Our experimental data at T\20°C are
N!I
denoted by the symbols (], ]). The Kadambi data at j\589.3 nm
are denoted by filled symbols (j, d, m). The model predictions from
Eq. 1 are plotted as lines; the legend gives the (j, T ) values for each
line
This model was used to determine the concentration
required to match n to n within a horizontal seven-rod
N!I
P
micro-bundle. Using the same Abbe refractometer, n was
P
found to be 1.47 over our T and j ranges. Eq. (2) at the
experimental conditions — the desired n value of 1.47 (\n ),
N!I
P
T\213C, and j\514 nm — gave a c of 54.5%. For c\0.545, the
solution index-matched the Pyrex rod bundle within the
measurement error of 0.005 or a refractive index mismatch of
0.3%, even at a j significantly less than those used to calibrate
the model.
3
Conclusions
A simple model has been developed from experimental
measurements for predicting n (T, c, j) over parameter
N!I
Budwig R (1994) Refractive index matching methods for liquid flow
investigations. Expt Fluids 17: 350—355
Kadambi JR; Bhunia S; Dybbs A (1988) A refractive index matched
test facility for solid—liquid flow studies using laser velocimetry. In:
Third International Symposium on Liquid—Solid Flows, ed. MC
Roco, FED 75, pp 91—98. New York: ASME Press
Narrow TL (1998) Flow Visualization Within a Seven-Rod MicroBundle. Master’s Thesis, School of Mechanical Engineering, Georgia
Institute of Technology
Pedrotti FL; Pedrotti LS (1987) Introduction to Optics. Englewood
Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall
283

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