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citta e vita cittadina nei paesi dell'鉗 ea lnediterrmea Secoli XIttXV Atti del Convegno lntemazionale in onore di Salvatore Tralnontana Adrano‐ Bronte‐ Catania‐ Pale....o,18… 22■ovembre 2003 ασ″″ αali 跳αぎ ο ttJ施 EST岬 0 viella Hiroshi Takayama Confrontation ofPowers in the Nollllan Kingdonl ofSicily: Kings,Nobles,Bureaucrats and Cities The No■ 11lan COnquest of Sicily and Southcrll ltaly in the eleventh cen― tury marked a watershed in NIlediterranean history.It destroyed the old po― litical order in this region,balanced among several states with different cul¨ tural traditions,and created a new set of political circumstances under the NollllanS.l lslamic Sicily,Byzantine Apulia and Calabria,the Lombard Prin― cipalities of Benevento, Salemo and Capua, and the city― states of Naples, AInalfl and Gaeta,were placed under No■ lan rulers and eventually unifled into the Nollllan Kingdom of Sicily in the"velfth century.Thus,Sicily and Southern ltaly,one ofthe most important strategic points and most important 1■ trading centres in the NIlediterranean,ceased to be the border region between the Arab lslamic,Greck】3yzantine,and Latin European cultural zones,and became a part ofthe political sphere ofLatin Christian]Europe. The No.1.lan COnquerors occupied a vast area spanning Sicily and Sout― herll ltaly,establishing themselves as a nlling class,which consisted of the kings, lay aristocrats and high clerics. They were the new masters of the conqueredヽ luslims,Grecks and《 Lombards》 .2 ThuS We tend to draw a line ofconfrontation beい Ⅳeen the No■ ■ 1lanS and the others,especially be● Ⅳeen the l.The impact of the Norlnan Conquest in Southem ltaly has iong been discussed by scholars.See E.Joranson,ル ιルεψ あ ′グ ″θCαた″ グ 滋ιNο ″%αぉ 滋 fra夕 ,in《 Specul― 》 23(1948),pp.353‑396;H.Hormam,Dた Иψ ″″ ″ ″Ⅳb りa77″ ″ S′ ″″′ ′ θ″,in《Qucllen und Forschungen aus ltalienischen Archiven und Bibliotheken》 ,49(1969),pp.95‐ 144;L.R. M6鯰 ger, Pcsaれ た′′ α ι″ο:οgた カ ル ̀ο あ″シα″ο″ ノ V♭ ″ α ″ag 滅9 ′h:te, in Rο ιι′ ′ οj′ の おσακあ s″ ο′ θψ ο,Atti delle prlme giomate nomallno― sveve,Bari,maggio 1973,Roma ̀″ 215;N.Kamp,陽 ッ′ιttOι ωJ″ ′ 1975,pp.189‐ Passaggわ ぬ llaあ ″レa%Jο ″ ″ ″ ′ααJJa ̀ο ̀ι s″ わ ″0′ ″α″″0,in Лο r″ α″ ′οte ιSム ″rry sο ι″ル ″ fra′ ゴ α″ι′″eaOω ο,ed.G.Rossetti, Bologna 1977,pp.379‐ 397;G.A Loud,激 ル Nο″%α″'was ttθ Nο ″ ″α″GO″ 9α ω′″rsο ク滋ι″ fra夕 2,in《 Nottingham Medieval Studies》 ,25(1981),pp 3‑34;Id。 ,Cο ″″″″夕 α″″ C″ αイ ハbr″α″ 力α夕r″ θCα′ θνι″滋 α″″ beJ/rn c ″r魅 ,in《 Jomal of ̀r″ ψ α″″ 赫 れg滋 ̀E′ Medieval Hisbり ら 22(1996),pp.313‑343;W.Jahn,磁 たrs″ 磁 ″η″ ″ z″ ″″ο″ ″お訪 Harrsc力 ψ レ S′ ″″″ι″″ ι″ θの,Fraart1989;J.France,動 ιGο ″″gグ ルθハbttα が "わ , r′ fra夕 ,in《 JOmal ofMedicval History、 17(1991),pp.185‑205. 2.From a demographic point Of ew,the Norrnans werc a minority with respect to their number.The maiority of Sicilians were Muslims and Greeks.Many of the inhabitants in Calabria and a part of Apulia were Greeks,while thc maJonty in Apulia and Campania were thosc with Latin Ch stian traditions, o食 en des bed as《 Lombards》 in contemporary sources.Conceming the survival of Lombard aristocrats aner the conquest in Campania,see Loud,Gο ′″″″jク α″グCみ α″gθ 滋 Ⅳο″″α″fra夕 ,pp.324‐ 336. Hiroshi Takayama No.11.anS and the conquered NIIuslims and Greeks.The name lists of luslim peasants in the writs of transfer of lands issued in the eleventh and hvel■ centuries seem to illustrate wellthese NIIuslims under No■ 11■ an 10rds.3 1tis well known that Greek and Muslim(or ex¨ h Muslim)offlCials seⅣ ed lars have been inclined to think that they were a small portion of the entire population of offlcials,and that the No■ 11lan kings in the royal palace.4 sch。 they were employed to goverll the Greck and NIIuslim populations,acting as intellllediaries between the nlling Noll■ lanS and the nlled Grecks and Arabs.5 This inclination seems to bejustifled from the fact that a large number ofci¨ ties in Sicily were allowed their autonomy when they sublnitted to Roger I,6 3.For example,a Greek documentissued on 20 February of A.M.(α ″″郷 ″ ″″)6603, (A.D.1095),listS 390 namcs of peasants(Catania,Archivio Capitolare della Indiction IⅡ Cattcdrale di Catania,P′ rga″ ι′′graε ο― α′ αbι θgrèみ の n.1;S.Cusa,f″ ″あ″ブgrθ ι″α″ ― ̀ブ わた力,ε ノ ′ ″ ′″bb′ たα′ ′″ι′rasゎ ο′ αた,VOl.I[2 parts],Palerm0 1868‐ 1882,pp.541‐ 549;J. j′ j夕 Vο ″ ″α′,ι ,Cambridge 2002,pp.301‑302,Appendix l, Johns,И ″わた Иα J″ おrrarゎ ″ コ ̀gレ no.4),and an Arabic document(the re sion ofthe documcnt of 1095)issued in A.M.6653, A.H.(α ″″欝 力 ̀girac)539,Indiction 525 names the people of Catania,94 namcs ofwidows,23 names VIII(A.D.1145)includes of《 slavcs ofthc church(♭ ら″ αof 々″ ″ おα)》 ,25 namcs of Jews,and 8 natnes of the blind(レ ″ノ)(Catania,Archi o Capitolare della Cattedrale di α″ αわ二pp.563‑585; Catania,P′ rga″ ι″ιgrecο ― arabθ θgracみ ら n.6;Cusa,fiっ あ″ゴgrθ cプ ̀′ Johns,И ′ αらブ οИα″j″ おrrarゎ ″,pp.119‐ 120,306,Appendix l,no.21). J― 4.H.Takayarna,刀 り ιGreα ′Иα ″おrra′ ル JS orttθ ハbr″α″κ″g′ ο ″ グ Sた ノ 机 in ̀q″̀″ く く Papers ofthe B tish School at Rome》 58(1990),pp.317‑335;Id。 力ηルおrrarゎ ″ぽ ″θ ,7乃 θИι Nο ″ α″K′ 慇 dο ″ グ Sc′ 夕,Leiden― New York‐ Kё in 1993;A.Metcalfe,多 θルレs′ J″sグ Sた Jタ ″″&rCみ ris″ α″R″ た,inコ %ι Sο ει ιク ι /ハb″ ″α″fra夕 ,edS.G.A.Loud,A.Metcalfe,Leiden 2002,pp.289‑317;Johns,И ″ αみたИ蒻 ルタ おrrar′ ο″,pp.212‑256. 5.D.Mack Smith,滋 ″ι″ ′Siaノ タ ∂θθイ 7′ 3,New York 1968,pp.15‑17.On the other hand,rnany scholars think that(3reek and Musllm offlcials were employed for their skllls to carry out specialized work for royal flnance.This view is typically shown in the following scntence:《 during thc reign of Rogcr thc Grcat thc responsibility for Юyal inance came to be vested almost exclus ely h the hands of Greek and Saracen offlcials...》 (DoC.Douglas,動 ι Ⅳο″ ″α″乃 ″ ′′θθイ′5イ ,Berkeley― Los Angeles 1976,p.H6).ItiS me that many Muslim and some Greek offlcials worked for theあ α″α(a磁れ),which scholars havc regardcd as a highly specialized flnancial ofEce.However9 the′ レα″α was not a specialized flnancial offlce.See my ε″′ ′И レおrra″ た 睦 飢 JZα′ わ″グ ルι argument on the″ α″αin H.Takayalna,効 ̀Fin ̀滋 ハb″〃α″Kin」0″ ″おrraあ ″.Cl タ,in《 ViatOD 16(1985),pp.129‑157;Id.,刀 bι Иα ′ 'Cプ Johns,И′ αみたИα ̀ノ ″お rra′ ブ ο4p.193. 6.When the Muslims of Palermo surrendered to Roger l and Guis9ard in 1072,their reprcsentativcs,い /o夕 ´ 泳 ,together with other magnates,negotiated with Roger I(Amato di 'ノ Montecassino,Sraガ α″ 'ブVο ″″α″′′J"Jgarレzα″ 滋 α″′ た0プを″εωc ed.v.De Bartholo― maeis,Roma 1935,lib.VI,cap.XVIIII,p.281),and gained his assurance of the safety of Muslim residents and perlnission of their own faith on the condition that they should pay たら霞 gas′ お Rρ ガブCα ″― annual tributes and g e service to him(Goffredo Malaterra,Dθ brJα ιθ ′S′ ι ねιιο″ブ ′ お θ′Rο berti a″ おθ ブ 需 ̀ィ1928,lib. ,ed.E.Pontic ,Bologna,1925‐ /ra″ ̀ぉ Ⅱ,cap.XLV,p.53).C'MiChele Amari,Sraガ ″α″′″ Scプ ′ Jα ,2nd ed,by C.A. α″θJ ttsν ′ Nanino,3 vols.,Catania 1933‑1939,vol.III,pp. 130‑131,277;F.Chalandon,Iis・ ′ οire ttθ ノ α a。 ″j″ αria″ ′ οrma77′ υι″fra′ た ′′ι″sicプ ′ ら 2 vols.,Pans 1907,vol.I,p.208;G.A.Loud,7物 ι Иgθ げ Rο ら おια″ 4 Har10W 2000,pp.161‑2.At this time the Muslims in Palermo J′ G seemed to bèrrallowed to keep some sort of autonomy, especiany to have their own laws, 543 Confrontation ofPowers in the Norlnan Kingdom of Sicily and also from the fact that AbO al― Qasim,a leader of the Muslims in Sicily seⅣ ed Willian■ II as a high offlcial.7 HOweVer,the relationship among those people was not silnple.There were very few wars fought based on differen― ces in religion or culture after the establishment of the kingdom.8 The Nor― man kings often fought against rebelllous No■ ■ 1lan barons,cities,and outside powers,such as popes,or Ge.1llan and〕 3yzantine emperors,all ofthem Chri‐ stian.The power struggles in the royal palace also lack confrontation purely based on differences in religion or culture.9 1t is difflcult to see a clear line of confrontation be● vecn the Noll■ lan kings and NIIuslims or Greeks. Then,how should we see the power structure ofthe kingdom?We could list various human groups,such as king,aristocrats,cities,high clerics,bu‐ reaucrats,Muslims,Grecks,Jews,etc.,as possible actors confronting each other.What kind ofrelationships did they have in tel.1ls ofpOwer?「Fhe main line of confrontation could be different during the conquest and after the establishment of the kingship.IIere l focus on the period a■ er the paciflca¨ tion ofthe kingdom in l140. I. In considering the power relationships or the lines of confrontation within the kingdonl,we should flrst understand the changing nature of the central power.10 We need to pay sufflcient attention to head llninisters and judges and judicial systcm(Am ,Sraガα ″ブ血 sノ物α″ぁ vol.IⅡ ,p.132;Chalandon, 〃′ sゎ ブ ″ aし ″ あ″″α′ ブ 04 vol.I,p.208;F.Gab eli,Zα ′ο′ ブ ′ ″ ″α″ ″θ ″′θα″わ ̀お ̀s Nο σ ゴ '一 た in《 Studia lslamica》 ,9[1958],p.93)In many other cities,such as̀滅Catania,Mazara, Trapani,Taorrnina,Syracuse,Castrogiovalmi,Butera,and Noto,Rogcr l probably kept their old administrat e systems(Amari,Srο ″ ″ aり 曲 動θИα″レおrra″ ο″グ Rρrrム sν ′ ″ara二 vol.Ⅱ I,p.277).Sec H.Takayama, ″た″ Sた 清名 ′′θ′‑2θ θ′,forthcoming in R″ ggι Ю tt Crar cο (TrOina,Laboratorio pcr l'arte la cultura l'ambiente). 7.Ibn Jubayr,RЙ ′ の edo W.W ght,2nd ed。 ,rev.De Goeie,Leiden 1907,p.341 物 ″おげ 乃″力ι (English trans.:ル ιコ υち2nd ed"trans.R.Broadhurst,London 1952,p. 358);Takayama,動 ιИα″ブ ″おrra′ ゎ″,pp.136‑138,141‑142;Johns,И ′ αらた Иα ″お″α′ ブ ο″ , pp.234‑242. 8.Even duttng the conquest,there werc few wars purely based on difference in religion or cul血 .The Nomans frst entered Siclly to support a Muslim lord who was in war with another ,И J《′ ″′ αルル レ篇み ,in βめ″οteca α αらο■た れ rasわ α″らο,ed. Amari,p.276;in 3げ らJiateca α″ αらοsブ ο ′ ね:ia″ α,ed.and trans.Aman,vol.I,p.447; 名 oα、Jο ″′ゴ Nuwa)d,ハ ウみのη a7̲z′αら′ Л″″′″aJ Zttαa in 3め Jiateca α4α らοづた″れ ′ ωゎ α″らο,ed.Am p.447;in 3め ′ ブ οたεαα αらοsた ″′ ら oα、わ″ι:tali a,ed.and trans.Amari,vol.Ⅱ ,pp.143‐ 144; ‐Ibα,hβ め′ Ibn KhaldOn,κ ′ ″らα′ ゴ οたcα α4α ら0‑Sた ″′ a resra arabο ,ed.Am ,pp.484‑485, 497;in 3め ′ Jο たoα α ″ αらο― sた ′′ ″:i観ら ed.and trans.Amari,vol.II,pp.202,221; ら o9、わ″ιゴ Malaterra,D̀た ら郷 gasrtt lib.II.cap.1‐ 11,pp.29‑33;И ″αゎ ″ 筋 ″たctts″ Q Sraガ α′し'Ⅳ οr‐ ″α″″1 lib.V,cap.8‐ 18,pp.229‑237.Cf Loud,動 ιИgι 式ヽοら′″ 6初 おca4pp.148‐ 158. 9.Hugo Falcando,Lブ らθ″″ ′ οSicプ ′ ′ οria οJibθ ″″ re♂ ηοSiι ″Jα θ,Roma ら in ttα ″お′ 1897,ed.G.B.Siragusa(English translation:GA.Loud,■ ̀g″ .Wiedcmann,trans,,1%θ 〃7sゎ ッ ″ ,Manchester― New York 1998) グ ″θり ra′ な グ ,Cの ″ 鶴 ψ Eα たα″″ s"″ 5イ ー Muslim lord.Ibn al― 紬 , 10. For the central ad■ linistrative organizations and the power structure of the royal court,sce E.Jamison,И α ブ ′E●geれゴ 郷 ρ rSCノ タ1〃 isttψ α″″″b滋 ,London 1957;E.Maz― zarese Fardena,И らρθ′ ″ ´レ″brga″ J2zazゴ ο′ α″ η′ ″おrral α ″ι′ ′ οsra′ ο ″ο″ ″α″″O ιSν ιツ0, ̀ ,′ Hiroshi Takayama 544 gЮups ofthe.力 ′ ″αras rggお (members of the royal inner council),because the real power was not always held by a king,but sometillnes held by a head JJα ras ragJs.It is lmportant to keep in mind minister or a group of the̲ヵ ′ that three fo.11.S Of Central power appeared in turlls at the royal court of Si‐ cily.11]During the reign of Roger II we see the flrst fo.1..Of Central power: the king hilnself exercised power.Roger II was supported by able nlinisters, offlcials and feudal vassals,rnost of whom he inhe ted from his parents,as well as No■ ..lan aristocrats and Christian clerics.12 The high… level offlcials α た were powe」 hl ma― with the title of α″J″ ′ Arabic gnates in the court with "s,originating the king's full from confldence.13 HOweVer,Roger II sol¨ ved various problems personally,and dealt with important matters hiinsel■ Thus,lor a large part of his reign,Roger II hilnself exercised power and was the real center in adnlinistration. His son Willian■ I's attitude was different.After having overcome a cri― sis at the beginning of his reign,Willianl l entmsted the govemment to the head― Ininister NIlaio and tried to live a secluded life.14 The king stepped down fronl the center stage of politics,and the head‐ Ininister took i11l con― trol of the government. This marked the appearance of a second follll of central power: a head― llninister exercising power instead of a king. NIIaio 11lan ba― promoted centralization ofthe govemment,and tried to exclude No■ Rcgブ sα ″′ 滋ι Rの α′ル″ ″ Cο ″′ε ″ブ ″ beF/rZ‐ cal Review》 C̀″ ″ッ ,ι ブ ,104(1989),pp 357‐ 372;Id.,ル ι■ ″α″ ′ タ,in《 English Histo ̀″ わ″,pp.129‐ 157;Id.,1物 θG″ α′Иα ″おrrarJ″ oρ ε″JS;Id., α″′Иα″″おrrattν θ Oそ「α″Jzα ′ οs′ aε Jes,Pans 1994,pp. 107‑ ″ Vο ″ ″α ″ α θ tt χ rt‰ ブ Иα ″ゴ ″ お rra″ ο ″ M.Martin,fra′ 動θ ;J.― ̀sノ 129;H.Houbcn,Roger′Iッο″SJz′ 方ι″,Darmstadt 1997,pp.149‐ 162(English trans.:Roger ff dge 2002,pp.147‐ 159);M.Caravale,Lα ″ο″´κみた ″ ぽ 駒ιウ trans.by G.Loud,Camb ̀― わο″ブ εαaα ′ハbr″ α″7172ブ αブβο″ IsrJr2zJο ″ノ θ滅9rrr′ ″αgJ″ ri″ノ ridio″ αた。 ,B 1998. rra′ Pο wer α ′ グ 11.For a負 ller argumcnt on the central powet see H.Takayama, Ce″ α″ CO′ ′′げ Sた j夕 ,in《 Mediterranean Studies》 ,12 α′滋ιNο ″ヮ ″ ′E′θ″ 滋 ルトC′ ′ Milano 1966;H.Takayama,Eα ″jFiares (2003),pp l‑15. "お Ⅱ,see Takayama,効 ′Иα ルおrrar′ ο″ 12.For the entourage and offlcials of Roger ous titles of Roman,Frankish,Byzantine and Ara― pp.48‑56,66‑93.Thesc offlcials bore va , ′ ο ′ Zgり ,η ω gins,such as cα ′ JJar″s,ι α″θrα ガ郷, η a,〃 αg ttη″′ ""ψ ξ Oξ ttο rariο り,λ のο η ξ ″οタ ルθ′ り ,α ″J ″島 η ψ αg 夕あわ″ο″riaり ,″ οraガ が,"mρ ′ あ ″‐ ″″′″″οr″ α′ガ α′た″ ο″′ ̀けθ 脅″珍 り,̀た See also V.von Falkenhausel,Ic̀′ ′″Jrな ̀ο j″ ″ a″ ο たた ′ ″ ″ι riFiο ″ α ″ θ″ Sia′ ″ ″ ″ ι ″竹α ′ ブ α″ι ιた ヽ S″ ri″ ο ″α s′ ″ ″わ″ 」 ,pp. ,in Fο ′ たε″″わ″ α′ 321‑377;Id.,7g ″ Jθ ″た θル cg′ ο″ R″ggιЮ 〃 θあ あつ ′α′ ′οたた,in Sο ― '′ sveve,Bari,23‐ Ⅱ I giomate nomlalmo¨ R2rgge約 Atti delle あ ″ ι ″υ ″ ″ ιたa′ οた ο′ 二 25 1naggio 1977,Ban "ο 1979,pp.133‑156. 13. They commanded the amy and were conccmed with the adnlinistration of the ra′ E″ g̀′ j郷 ∫L.‐ R. kingdom.Most of them were Greek.For α″″αrys,see Jamison,Иα″′ gブ 似π sブ lε ′ θ ″ ″ 滋 ル ″力 η″ ″ 五セ ″ i″ ′ α Jas ο ω M6nager,И ″″ rars‑4ψ αξ ′ り,PariS ・ bic o ИZὶ″ α ″辱 q″ ε ιげИrabブ θ b″ ,α ″κ″多′ 0″ げSiaノ ター 1960;H.Takayama,И ″げ ras,″ ″θハ gθ 力 ″ rraあ ″ Лο ぉε ″ι R9ッ α ′Иα ルお O′ ″ ″ ″ z″ ″ Rθ た力sち P"sr‐ ′″ Zα ″aω gθ ― ,in た力た sε み ̀g″ ,hrsg.von K.Borchardt&E.Bunz,Stuttgart 1998,pp.133‑144. 14.Falcando,ZJら ι′′しreg′ ο,p.87(English trans.,p.136). Confrontation ofPowers in the Norrnan Kingdom of Sicily 545 rons from the royal court.15 This policy raised their hostility against him and brought about his assassination.After the death ofNIIaio William l appointed elect of Sy― the archdeacon of Catania,the count of NIlarsico,and the bishop¨ racuse to beヵ ″〃滋rCS ragzs,and entrusted them with the govemment ofthe kingdom.16 ThuS,a third foll.l of central power appeared.Frolln this tilne on, the力 J′′ αras rcgJs were members of the Ю yal inner council.As decision― makers on policy and other important rnatters,they were the most powerill people in the kingdonl under William l and William II.17 His son Willianl II was another that did not exercise power personally. During his reign,we see the second and third fo.11.s ofcentral powerjust as under William I.In the early period of his reign,the regent Qucen Margaret madc Peter,an ex― NIIuslinl eunuch,18 and Stephen,son ofthe count ofPerche in France,head¨ Ininisters by turns,entrusting theln with state affairs.Howe― ver,both of thelln faced with serious resistance froln the magnates and Sici¨ lians, and fled the kingdom in disturbances. Stability was restored when ′ Jα rgS rcgお and the dean of Agrigento,was conse― Walter,onc of theヵ ′ crated archbishop ofPalellllo.As soon as he gained the highest ecclesiastical position in the kingdonl,he changed the composition of the inner council, and established a triumvirate consisting of hilnselt Gentile the bishop of Agrigento,andヽ latthew the notary.19 1n this way,the central power of the court retumed to the third fo■ 11l again.This triumvirate continued for about flfteen years and was inodifled by the addition of the archbishop of NIIolllre― 〃′ αras ragお came to an end ale.20 The goverlling ofthe kingdom by theヵ after the death ofWillialln II.21 Thus,the central power at the court greatly changed over the course of time.Roger II kept the real power in his hands and managed state affairs by hilnselt althOugh supported by able offlcials. In contrast,William l and William II were reluctant to govern the kingdolll for themselves.Their head― ′ ′ ″ ras ragお took care of daily state affairs. ministers or illlller council ofj脅 ″おrra′ ブ ο″,pp.95‑98;E.Jamison,動 ιNor″ α″Иα″″おtrarわ ″ 15.Takayama,Zみ θИグ″′ Papers レ Rοgθ ′〃 α″′ ″7筋 α″ 〃 ″ 2み ′′66,inく く ″ ωη グG″ ″α施 ″ Eψ θε″JJy″ ″θ げ 4″ ′ ofthe British School at Rome》 16.Falcando,二 jわ ̀r ttι ,6(1913),p.260. rcg″ ο, pp.44,69(English trans.,pp. 98, 120). Ci Jamison, Иα げ ′ α′Eνr″ J%S,pp.46‐ 47. Jttsc力 ι ″ ′ ″″″滅 17 For thcヵ ″″力′aS″ gis of Sicily,see H.Schadek,Dた F翻 ノ ̀rs″ p″ おε力 κσ″ み″″滅 ′ ′ ″ ′2.″ ″′f3.■ 2″ ′ ″″″α′ ,in《 Gcsammelte Aufsttzc zur Kultur‐ α〔 ̀″ ̀″ α″′ ′ :ares ragJtt pp.357‑372;Id., geschichte Spaniens》 ,26(1971),pp.201‑217;Takayama,Л ̀gθ Zみ θИα″′ ′isrra′ わ″,pp.98‐ 101,115‑125. 18.He was the mastcr chamberlain of the royal palace Falcando,Z′ わι″αθreg′ ο,p.90 (English trans,p.139).For Peter,see note 24 below. 19 Falcando,Zブ わι″瀕θrag″ ο,pp.163‑164(English trans,p.216). 20.This archbishopric was created in l183 and its irst archbishop William joined the ′ ″ras ragJs 力 ″′ ng the rcign of his 21.It was not rcstorcd under a new king Tancred,but restarted du son Winiam IH.Takayama,Fα ″Jttα ras κgis,pp.365‐ 370. 546 Hiroshi Takayama Even if the king was the center of the kingdon■ institutionally or symboll‐ cally,the real power was exercised by a head― minister or an illner council of Jiaras ragお .Therefore,we should notjust focus on kings to discuss the 力 ′ character ofthe Sicilian sovereignty.The character of sovereignty varies ac‐ cording to the fo.1..of the central power,as does the power structure of the court.We must pay hll attention to head ministers andヵ ′ ″αras ragお to discuss central power ofthe kingdom. II.Although the kings were No.1.lanS,none of the head nlinisters were Nolll.anS from No.11■ andy Or their offsp ng.George,head― minister ofRoger II, was bom in Antioch of Syria and had a Greek cultural background.22 Maio,head minister ofWilliam I,was a son ofa localjudge ofBariin south ltaly.23 Peter,head minister during the mino ty of William Ⅱ,was bom in Jerba and a cunuch with an Arab― Islanlic tradition, although a converted Christian.24 11is successor Stephen was French,a son ofthe count of Perche, but not of a No■ 11■ an Origin from Noll■ landy.25 Few oftheノ♭ were No■ lan aristocrats or offsp 1■ 力 J′ 滋rgs 〃滋r̀s ragお ng of such aristocrats.Arnong the threc ragお appointed just after the assassination of NIIaio,only Sylve‐ 22.Gcorge,who also bore the title of α″ira′ 眈 s,was a powcnl head■ linister.He was born in Antioch, scrved a Zirid ruler in Tunisia,then came to Sicily. He spokc Grcek and Arabic,thus being very useml for the adnlinistration of the kingdonl,which had many Grcck and Arabic inhabitants.For George,see lbǹAdh狙 ,ん ″らα′ 3ψ みコ 吻 ノ ″′ a in βめ″οた― Oα α ″ αbO― Sた ″及λ たsゎ α4α ιο,ed Amari,p.373;in 3め ノ "α わ■ 9ι αα ″ αら ο‐ sた ″々 ιゴ ″:=飢ら λッ ̀rs,0″ ed.and trans.Amari,vol.Π ,p.38;Amari,Sゎ ″″ ´鬱J tts′ ′ ″α″ブ″ Sた ノ ′ ′ a V01.Ⅱ I,pp.368‑ 369.Ibn Khaldて h,Kゴ ″らαJ‑7ι αち in Fめ ′ わたιαarabO― sた ク′ rasゎ α ″ら ο ら ,ed.Amari,p.487; in 3′ ら ′ た,た αrα わο― sた クル ″′ た ら ed.and trans.Aman,vol.Ⅱ ,p.206;Amari,Sゎ ― ちッθ″sわ ″′ノ "ヮ ria daJ臨s̀α′ ″α′J a sia′ ′ ブ ら vol.Ⅱ I,p.369;Takayama,ル ιИα ″おrraria4 pp.53,66‑67. 23.Maio was a sm of″ gα ris′ raJク ゎけ Of Bari.For Maio,see A.Gab eli,吻 ο″ あ Bα riル ab̀″ ″JSわ rJι 力θ ″″″οッ プ′♭ε′ inく強 h iO Storico pugliese》 ,2(1895),pp.248‐ ― ̀ο 252;0.Harmig,Rθ ttlic′ ″οfι ″s″ ο♂″″″ α″″:電 νηο″ B″t,in dhchivio stori― ̀″ ='O co per le provincie napoletanc》 ,8(1883),pp.397‑485;Takayama,7bι И′″滋お a′ ゎ為 pp.96‐ rl・ 98.F.Giunta,however,thinks that Maio belonged tO a Greek bourgeois family at Bario Sec F. Giunta,3″ α″ri4ブ ιら,zα″″″お″ο″θJra sicilta″ ο′ α′′α,Palerlno 1974,pp.51,60. 24. Falcandus described hiin as《 a Ch stian only in narne and dress but a Saracen at heart like an the eunuchs of the palace》 .Falcando,Z′ らθ′″θ″ ο,p.25(English trans.,p. 78):《 siCut et omnes cunuchi palatii,nomine tantum habituque ̀g″ chrisdanus erat,animo saracenus》 .Go Siragusa(Falcando,Zめ 滋 ′ ″ο,p・ 99,■ ote l)and M.Amari stο ia′ a ̀′ 拗 s ′ 物α″ノ″ ,c′ ′ ′ a vol.IⅡ ,p.496)identitt̀♂PCter with Ahmad as― Siqilll(価 ad the Sicilian)of Berbcr origin.According to lbn Khaldanに itab αJ̲7ら α′,in 3ブ ら方οたεα α4α ら0‐ sた ″′ ι″′ ら rasゎ α′αbο ,ed.Amari,462;β めFiaた cα arabO■ ブ ″″c ed.and trans. ら だ rsわ ″ιj″ ′ Amari,vol.H,pp.166‐ 167),Attad as― Siqill,was taken from the island of Jerba to Sicily by Christians,educated there,and employed by the Princc of Sicily(Roger Ⅱ).See Takayama, Fα 解″tares ragお ,pp.360‐ 362;Id.,2吻 ιИd 滋お arわ ″,p.100,note 20;Johns,И ″ αらた Иd ″ブ srrarJο ″ ,pp.222‑228. 25.Falcando,二 Jbι r″ rc♂ ″ο,pp. 109‐ 112(English trans.,pp. 159‑162);ChalandOn, Hisたガ″ θα′た7 aο ″″α′ ′ 。tt vol II,pp.320‐ 322. 7・ r7・ j― Confrontation ofPowers in the Norlnan Kingdom of Sicily ster,count of NItarsico and cousin of Willianl I,was a No■ lan aristocrat.26 〃″― ′ %=η ′ ′ α― ras rcgお until the flight ofPeter in l166.27 The illner council of flveノ 1■ A■ er his death,■o Nollllan 10rds entered the inner council of three̲力 ras rcgお established at that tilne included one aristocrat,Richard ofNIlandra, 〃滋rgS ragお reorganized after the flight count of Molise,and that of tenヵ of Stephen in l168 included three anstocrats;Richard ofヽ landra,count of NIIolise, Roger, count of Gerace, and Hc町 , count of NIIontescaglioso.28 Count Hctt ofMOntescaglioso was a brother ofthe regent Queen Margaret and a Spaniard.29 Richard of Mandra was originally the constable of Robert II,count of Loritello and Conversano.30 He Was imprisoned for the support ofthe rebel,but was liberated in l161 and appointed master constable ofthe king.31 Then,he was made count ofMarsico by the regent Queen Margaret.32 Hc lnight be ofNo■ 11lan Origin,but this fact is difflcult to ascertain.We have 1lation conceming Roger,count of Gerace.33A■ er the establish¨ little info■ ■ ′ ′ αrω rcgls in l169,no aristocrats ente¨ ment of the trium rate ofthreeυ 力″′ red the inner council untilthe death ofWilliam II.34 The list of the̲ヵ J′わras ragお rather shows remarkable variance,like that of head lninisters, in tel.1ls Of their origins and cultural backgrounds. Among the threc̲ヵ J′ 滋ras ragJs at the end of the relgn of William I,Ri¨ chard the bishop―elect of Syracuse was English cleric,35 and PCter the master chamberlain of the royal palace was an ex¨ NIIuslim eunuch.36 The group of flVe力 J′ 滋 rcs ragzs fo■ 1■ led after the flight of Peter consisted of tto ex― 26. Falcando,ニ ブ ιι′ Jθ ′ ag″ Q pp. 44‑69(English trans.,pp. 98, 120); Takayama, Fa″ ブ ′ ブ αres ragお ,pp.359‑361;Id.,rh̀И ′″J″ ぉrra″ ο″,pp.98‑101.Count Silvestcr ofMarsico was the son of Godfrey of Ragusa(son of Roger l),and thus thc grandson of Roger I.Sec Cuozzo,CO″ ′ ″ι″′ α′ノ 0,pp.159‑160;Falcandus,Engo trans.,p.84 note 55. ′ ο″,pp.100‐ 101, 27 Takayama,Fα ″ブ ′ ″res ragお ,pp.360‑361;Id.,2吻 θИα 滋お″α′ 115‑116. 28. Falcando,二 ′ らι′瀕 eg′ ο, pp. 108‐ 109, 161‐ 162(English trans., pp. 158, 214); ̀′ ο″,p.117. り θИα ″おrra′ ゴ Takayama,Eα ″ブ ′ ″′ as″gis,pp.362‑363;Id.,刀 29.Falcando,Zブ bι r aθ ′ ο,p.107(English trans.,pp.155‑156). ι 30.動 ,&鵞,p.24(English ̀g″ trans.,p.77).Hc had lands at Terlizzi and near Troia。 (Cο ″ε α j″ お arわ ″ 滅″あ″α′ たοbα resι ,vol.HI,Bari 1899,pp.128,136).Ci E.Jamison,動 ̀И ッ ιJ/rm α″グ動 レた鋼 ″ ca″ ″r′ ぉ,in《 English Historical Review》 ̀/ 滋ιGο ″′ν グ 施 妹 θ″ ″ r7・ ̀ル £ 電壺 騨Ψδ 概1撒ど 濫・ I緊諸掲 mittζ 7亀 新″徹 熱 , of Count Robert ofMolise,but l could not conflm this in sources. 31.Falcando,Z′ ιιr a′ ″ ,pp.24,56,69(English trans.,pp.77,109,120);Romual― 4g″ ο ιO″ ,p.246. do Salemitano,Ch′ ο′′ らιr aθ re♂″ο,pp.97‑98(English trans.,pp.146‐ 147). 32.Falcando,二 ′ 33.Cf jι ide″ ,p.193 and note 227. 34.Takayama,Fα ″iliares α ブ ″おrrarゎ ″,pp.118‑123. ̀И αz′sι みθ″ κδtttjC・ A Sizブ ″′′s,4 vols. ragお ,pp.365‑369;Id.,効 35.N.Kamp,(κ みο ″″″ 施 ″ακみjι ル S′ Miinchen 1973‑1982,vol.III,pp.1013‑1018. bθ ″″θ″ 36.Falcando,ι ブ ̀g″ ο,p.83(English trans.,p 133). Hiroshi Takayama NIIuslinl eunuchs,Richard37 and NIIartin,38 a nOtary bom in Salemo,14atthew, and the count Richard of Molise.The group oftenヵ ′ ′ 滋r"rggお fo.11led after the flight of Stephen included three foreigners,the English Bishop― elect Richard of Syracuse,the Hungarian Bishop Gentile of Agrigento, and the Spanish Count Hen囁 y ofヽ lontescaglioso, besides three ecclesiastics, ●vo counts,and one notary.39 Furthe.1..ore,the Hungarian Gentile and the En― glish Richard were both included in the threeヵ 〃力r"ragis established after l169.40 ThuS,a great number of foreigners and those with Arab‐ Islanlic ras ragお .Feudal lordsjoined the in‐ backgrounds attained the rank of/aF,J′ ′ α ner council in serious situations for a lilnited extent of tiine,but their num― bers were very few in ordinary conditions and nil after l169. It should be also noted that Muslims(or ex¨ Muslims)and Grecks occu― pied other impo■ ant offlces at the central goverlment.NIIost α″7Jrα ″ under Roger II were Greek.41、 1。 st chamberlains ofthe royal palace under William II were NIIuslims or ex― NIIuslims.Ofthe eight chamberlains ofthe royal pala― Ce(inCluding master chamberlains of the royal palacc)confl・ 11■ ed in the sollrces, at least four, possibly as many as six, had Arab― Islamic cultural backgrounds.42 All three master chamberlains of the royal palace,Iohar,43 Peter,44 and Richard,45 were eunuchs with Arab― Islanlic backgrounds.46 37 Although Falcandus does not call Richard a eunuch, the following description implies that he was also a cunuch:《 Gaylms quOque Richardus ini cum ceteris eunuchis infestissimus erat,eo quod Robertum Calataboianensem contra voluntatem eius dampnaverat》 ′ ο,p.119[English trans,p.170]).SCC also Jら Jι診″,pp.161‑162(En‐ (Falcando,Zjら ̀r aθ ̀g″ glish trans.,p.214);Takayama,Creaノ Иα レお′ ′ α ′ げ た α′〕 ε ′ α JS,pp.323‐ 324;Johns,И ら た Иa J″ ぉrra″ ο″,pp 228‑234. 38 Falcando,Zブ らθr aθ rc♂ ″。,p. 79 note l and pp. 108‑109(Eng sh trans.,pp. 129, 158);C.A.Garufl,I αοι″″ι″″ブ ″ια′ ′ ′滅″′lυ ο ″ο′ ″α″″α′ ″Sた ′ ′ ″,in Dο ε θ′″′ιr S̀″ "″ jὶα ′ ッルで αJra sゎ ″α″ Sた ブ ′ ブ α,sθ r″ f― D″ あ″α′ ι ら 9,Palermo 1899,p.lH;Takayama,η ら Gr̀α ′Иa レお arル θり c″ ,p.323;Johns,И ″υ らJι Иα ″おrraria″ ,pp 219‑222. 39.Falcando,Zブ らι′J′ ′ ″ο,pp.161‐ 162(English trans.,p.214). 40.乃 j″ ″,pp.163‑164(English ̀♂ trans.,p.216ゝ Takayalnち Fmilitts″ ♂島pp.365‐ 38. 41.In addition to Gcorgc,JOhn,son of Eugenius,Nicholas,Theodore,Basilius and Mi‐ ′ chael,son ofGeorge,were an Greek α″′ α万.See Takayama,И ″ブ ″″s,pp.138‑140. r7・ J6・ 42.Takayama,ル οGκ α ノ Иα″滋おJra′ げ た q′ 43.Falcando,Zげ らθ″ JS,pp.321‐ 326. ̀Jα ′ ″ α′E,gc― eg″ ο,p.77(English trans.,p.128)Ct JamiSOn,И α ノ ̀″ ガ郷,p.44 and note 3;Takayama,刀 り ′Grθ α′Иα ブ ″ おrrarゴ И″ αらたИα レおrrarわ ″,pp.224. 44.See notc 24 above. 45.Takayama,刀 り ′Greα r И蒻 レおJra′ ′ srra″ ο″ ,pp.228‐ 234 46.Many ofthe masters ofthe″ ″α″αttθ q″ ε ″お,pp.322‑323;Johns, Q″εたJS,pp.323‑324;Johns,И ′ sι ε θ′ ブ S,Which rabブ εИα ー ″ブ kept and dealt with documents related to land,had Arab― Islamic cultural background.Takayama,刀 ら θG″ α′Иα ゴ ′おrrarJ″ 叩 C力な,pp.326‑331.Thcre were also many foreigners among other govemment offlcials. Robert the chancellor and Thomas Brown the chaplain,both of whonl served Roger II,and Flo us de Camerota,who served the three kings as justiciar,were from England.For Robert the chancellor,see K.A.Kehr,Dた しr肋 ″ ″θ ″αι ′″ο′ ″α″″お sレ ″おο 力ι ″κσ ″gι ,Innsbruck ̀か 1902,p.75■ ote 8;Haskins,E″ g′α ″グα″グ,ε ′ θScプ ′ ″″Nο ′ ″α″ 机 p.437;E.Jalnison,刀 り Confrontation ofPowers in the Norlnan Kingdonl of Sicily Thus,those who were at the center of power had various cultural back― grounds although influence in the royal court shifted from Greeks to Arabs to Latins.47 A Greek,an ex― NIIuslim eunuch,a Frenchman,and a southem NIIuslinl eunuchs and foreigners ragお ,and all three master chamberlains of the royal ltalian reached the post of head nlinister,ex¨ joined theヵ ′ ′ 滋ras palace were ex― NIIuslinl eunuchs.They were not simple govemment offlcials ofthe king,butthe people that had real power and influence. Why did the king appoint those with a different culture or even a diffe― rent religion to such a high position?Why did he have such a trustin them? What elements tied thern together?What could the main confrontation axes be ifnot differences in religion or culture? III.At the royal court,the difference in religion or a cultural background did not seⅣ e as a clear line of confrontation.It is tme that NIIuslims were at― tacked,pillaged,and killed by Christians during disturbances,48 and religious differences served as a reason of hatred.49 However,the main line of con… frontation did not lie beい ″cen Christians and NIIuslims or between Latins and Greeks or Arabs,but between kings and aristocrats,both Christians. Although the kings and barons shared many common characteristics, such as No■ 11lan Origin,Christiani幌 Latin tradition,and knightly status,they were different in other respects.The kings had more in corllllnon with bu― reaucrats than with the aristocrats.For example,both the kings and bureau― crats were intellectuals. It is well known that the No■ 11■ an kings of Sicily were well versed in Arabic and Greek cultllres.Roger II had a strong influ― ence ofGreck culture,and llnost ofhis signatures appear to have been written ο″ ″α″Cο ″たψ οraガ の,in《 Proceedings ofthe British Aca― κブ リ ο″ ″ ″ιИ ″ググ И4g′ ο」√ お た Sc∝ ″わ「 D̀Nι ιassα ″ブ demy》 ,24(1938),p.270.For Thomas Brown,see D″ Jagtt ι ̀α ″r Dlalotts a″ Sc・ αο ″わ,ed.C.Johnson,London ブI)″ Jag熔 ,9ク ブ″εブ ″α″″お Sc・ αιοα′′ Oι じι ̀α 1950,p.35;Haskns,Ettaだ α″″SC′ 夕,pp.438‑440;W.L.Warren,ffa″ ″ 二 Berkeley― Los ιJ/ra Ceれ″ッ,London 1912, Angeles 1977,pp.313‑314;RoL.Poole,Zみ ιExcみ ι9ν ι′レ ″ιらν pp.67,H8‐ 122.For Florius de Calnerota,see Haskins,En」 a″ グα″′SCプ タ,pp.437‑438;Ja― ね″ハ石 οr″ α″κ″g′ο″,pp 274… 275. mison,刀 り ι '6J′ ″段ガEle″ θ″ ,p.14.For thc decline ofthe ″α′Pο ″θ′α″グル物Jrみ C′ ′ 47.Takayama,Ca″ οEη′ Muslinl population in Sicily in the b″ cltth and thirtcenth centuries,see D.Abulafla,7乃 Pι rsp̀ε rivι ,ed.M.Powell, ′ ′R″ たrИ Cο ″ ara″ ″s″ ″滋 ′Zα ′ ″ ,inル″s′ ′ ぽ 拗 S′ ′ 'Cの 133. Princcton 1990,pp.103‐ rs・ 48.For example,many Musllms were killed by Chrisdans in the ot in l161 atter the assassination of Maio.Falcando,Zjら ιr aθ ″ cg′ Q pp.56‑57(English trans.,pp. 109‐ 110); εO″ , pp. 246‑247(English translation: G.A. Loud, Th. Romualdo Salemitano, Cみ ′ο″ブ ′ '助gο 乃たα ″ ″ ″s″ ″5イ ー Cj夕 なグ 繊 Wiedemalm,trans.,動 θ〃isわ ッ げ ″ιル ″ Manchester― の Ncw York 1998,p.230). 49. According to Falcandus, Martin, an ex― Muslim eunuch, raged an the Christians flcrcely and imputed his brothcr's death to thenl,because hc knew his brother had been killed by some Ch stians.Falcando,Z′ らι′滅a rca″ ο,p.79(English trans.,p.129). , 550 HiЮshi Takayama in Greck.50 According to lbn Jubayr9 Willianl II was able to read and write Arabic.The No■ lan kings were very interested in leaming and the arts,and 1■ gathered many scholars,such as doctors,astrologers,philosophers,geogra¨ phers,rnathematicians including Greek theologian Neilos]〕 oxopatres51 and Arab geographer ldFsl,to the royal palace in Pale.1.lo.According to ldLlsl, Roger II had a deep understanding of mathematics,political sciences, and natural sciences,and e可 oyed diSCussing these sutteCtS With scholars.52 ヽloreoveL according to lbn Jubayr9 William II had doctors and astrologers under his close care, and orered vast sums as living expenses to foreign doctors and astrologers passing through the kingdom.53 ThuS,the No■ 11lan kings,while being Christian,were intellectuals who appreciated Greek and Arabic scholars. Many of the kings' Ininisters and bureaucrats were also highly educated and learned intellectuals.Hemy Aristippus,a Latin Chris― tian cleric who seⅣ ed William l asヵH′ ′ ′ αrJs ragJs,translated《 Menon》 and 《Phaidon》 by Plato,and《 Meteorology〉 〉by Aristotle hm Greck into Latin.54 Eugenius, a Greek ofFlcial who seⅣ ed William II as master of theグ レακα bα θκν ,translated《 Optics》 by Ptolemy into Latin from Arabic.55 Both the kings and bureaucrats lived in Pale.1.lo,the capital ofthe king¨ dom.Pale.1■ lo was the center of almost all aspects of human act ity includ― ing politics,the cconomy and culture,and was the second biggest city in the kingdom after Naples.Its population in the hvel■ h century is estilnated to have been be● ″een 50,000 and 100,000,56 and it was bigger than Rome or London,which had populations of 50,000.57 Pale■ lo,WhiCh had been alsO 1■ 50.Most of his signatures were written in Greck not only in Greek documents but also in Latin ones. See Takayama, Gθ′trα′Pο ″ι′α″グル物′ ″― C″ JJ″ rα ′Elemθ ″ rs,p. 5 notc 16. Howevcr,Falkenhausen believes that Roger II's Greek signatures were not written by his own hand but by one of his sc grect in Dο ε ″″θ″′ ′″ 23‐ 29 bcs.See V.von Falkenhausen,I々 あ″′″ブ″ ″οr″ α′″Jゴ ′″η廷 夕α αtt graι ′ι′ α′ J′ J Sryグ J cο ″ α ′ α′ ッ′ ブ ce, ,Atti del senlinario di E ̀醸 ottobre 1995,eds.G.D.Grego o,0.Kresten,Spoleto 1998,pp.283‑286. jο ″ 51.A.Kazhdan,D"″ arres,ル あs,inル ιOψ JDたノ α ′ ″″,3 vols.,ed. ッグルzα ″ cッ 7・ A Kazhdan,New York‑Oxford 1991,vol.I,p 660;V von Falkenhausen,2)ο χq′ α r7・ D宅 86・ ,Ni′ ο, :子 鶴 盈 iZ協 1%I惚 競 1棚 ヵウ 勝 肌 棚 欄 基 ″ 。gr″ んι″り ,6 vdゝ Roma 1970… 1976,p.5;in Bめ ′ Jο ″ε αα′ αらο‐ sた ″′ αらο,cd.Amari,p16;in 3め ′ わたcα ら rasゎ α″ α′ ηιο― sた クス ク rsJO″ ιj″ ノ ″″ら ed.and trans.Amari,vol.I,p.35. ,ッ θ 53.Ibn Jubayr,R′ み′ α,p.324(English trans,p 341). 54.Jamison,И a J″α′E"gθ″ブ ぉ ,pp.XVII‐ XXI;Ch.H.Haskins,刀 り θR̀″ α′ ssα ″ εθO′ ″′ ツ 0′力Cθ ″滋″,Camb dge(MaSS.)1927,pp.60,292,298,332,344;Id.,Srzttω j″ 滋θ五″‐ οッ グ 擁 グ′ ′ま た″ια 2nd.cd.,Cambridge(MasS.)1927,pp.53,142‐ 3,150,152,159‑ ̀″83,190;M.T,Mandalari,E′ ′たοИrお ′ οИκJttα θο″ο″ Cα ′ 63,165‑72,179‐ α″″ ″ellaッ プ ″ ″ c″ Jr″ ′ α″ θ′ο″tica ttθ ′sι あ 組 ぅin《 Bolletino storico catanese》 ,4(1939),pp.87‑123 ̀ο 55.Jamison,И α″″α ′E″ gι ″げ ε pp.XXI‐ XXII,4. ̀島 56.I.Pe ,Uo″ ブ ″らι ra θεα″ρag″ ιゴ ″S′ ε′ ′ ′ α′bJJし てra′ ジ К″7 sι οο′ ο,Bari 1978,p.108; rレ S′ J′ H.van Werveke,in ttι 57.Werveke,in ttο Pο Cα ″b7・ プ ″ο″た″′ sわ 秘 vol.IⅡ 4"Ec・ ο Gα ″ら ガク (1963),p.38. Eω ″ο″たfis女 勿り S 跨vol・ Ш ,pp.38‑3■ L.K.Littlc,Rθ 力 を ν ′ 夕α″′″ι Pr中 巳∞ ″0り 滋ル々″のり′E″ ″ ο,Ithaca o.Y.)1978,pp.22‑23;B.Tiemey,S. 'ο И洲 ′ aИ gas Jθ ι′ イ7,4th ed.,New York 1983,p.274. 響 e″ 滋ιノ Pa耐,″ ●s″ "E彼 Confrontation ofPowers in the Norrnan Kingdom of Sicily the capital under the R4usliln rule,was populated by many NIIuslims even af― ter the No■ 11lan COnquest. Thus, Islanlic culture was donlinant there. Ibn Jubayr described that《 The Christian women of this city follow the fashion of NIIusliln women,are fluent of speech,wrap their cloaks about theln,and are veiled. They go forth on this Feast Day dressed in robes of gold― embroidered silk,wrapped in elegant cloaks,concealed by colored veils,and .58 shod with gilt slippers〉 〉 Although the No■ lan kings had palaces all over the kingdoln, their 1■ principal place of residence was the palace in Pale.1.lo,59 which was origi― nally an old NIIuslinl castle.60 The royal court of Sicily effectively lneans this royal palace in Pale■ 11lo and the people working there. This marks a clear contrast with other European monarchies.In the kingdoms ofEngland,Fran― ce,and Ge■ 11lany,the kings did not flx their capitals in one place, instead moving within their kingdoms缶 om one castle to another once every several weeks or rnonths with their retinues in tow.The No■ 1■ ■ an kings of Sicily li¨ ved in the royal palace in Pale.1.lo SurrOunded by NIIuslims.Willian■ I entru‐ sted his lninisters with the affairs of state and prefelTed to live a tranquil and secluded life with Muslil■ pages and court ladies.According to lbn Jub″ r, Willianl II trusted NIIuslims deeply,entrusted all private matters and impor― tant affairs to thenl,hired a NIIuslinl chief cook,and had a troop of NIIuslim black slaves.61 NIIoreover,Inost of the pages seⅣ ing the king were eunuchs and secretly worshipped the faith oflslam.62 0n the other hand,most anstocrats were feudal lords who lived in the counttyside of the peninsula,distant hm Pale.1.lo,in marked contrast with the kings who lived in gorgeous palaces with Muslim pages and court ladies, and the intellectual bllreaucrats engaged in goverlment.The anstocrats were Christians,and many ofthem were No■ 11lanS.Unlike the kings,few ofthem had opporlunities to come into contact with sophisticated Arab or Greck cul¨ tures,or enJoy their studies and arts.We do not know much abouttheir activi― ties except those pertaining to the military and maintenance ofpeace.There is little infollllation about their cultural activities.NIlany ofthelln lived a substan― tial distance ioln the larger cities,which ofFered vanous cultural activities and opporlunides of education,and probably did not have much opportunity to re‐ 58.Ibn Jubayr,R″ ra,p333(Broadhurst,pp.349‐ 350). 59 Thc Noman ldngs had also a white palace in Messina,and the palaces of Favara and Jο た ε α ら″厖hα α ″ぉ″″9,pp.590‑592;in 3′ らノ Altofonte near Palerrno.See Al‑ldMsl,ス "〃 30;β め′ ″′ α″ら 0‑s′ ε わ′ agα α ら sた ″ ′ ι sゎ arabο ,ed.Amari,pp 28… α″らο― ら だrsjO″ ιJ"′′ ら′ J― ed.and trans.Ama ο″,p.232(English ,vol.1,pp.59‑62;Romualdo Salemitano,Cみ Ю″ι ′αθrcg′ Qp.87(English trans,pp.136‐ 137).See HOuben,Rο ‐ ο trans,p.219);Falcando,L′ ら gι ′ fr,p.131(English trans,pp 130‑131). 60.For the royal palacc,see Falcando,ル なわた,p.178(English trans.,p.259).Cf Fal‐ cando,Z′ g″ Qp.55(English trans,p.108). ′″θ″ らι ζ ″,p.324(English trans.,p.340) 61.Ibn Jubayr,Rゴ み 62.I♭ ide″ ,pp.325‑326(English trans.,p.340). 552 Hiroshi Takayama ceive literary education,even though they were certainly trained as wariors and knights.Although their lord,the king,understood plural languages,was well versed in lslamic and Greck cultures as well as Latin,and ettoyed an llr̲ ed ban life at a gorgeous palace in the capital city Pale.11lo,mOSt aristocrats l in castles or houses in remote rural areas,had no opportunity to recc e good education,and lived their lives in a wholly Christian culture. IV Thus,the kings and aristocrats show marked contrast in lnany respects although both were Christian knights.The contrast betteen them is shown by being located in the center or a regional district,a large cosmOpolitan city or a rtlral cou納 ,and whether they were intellectuals or warnors.Palellllo,in which the kings and bureaucrats resided,was an overwhelmingly large ci与 The population,wealth,and cultural activities of the kingdonl were concen― trated on this capital.There were other big cities such as Naples,Amalfl,and Gaeta that were pЮ sperous with colllmerCe.Some of them,sllrrounded by ramparts,had even the power to revolt against a king.IIOwever9 these cities, with some exceptions,were not places inhabited by anstocrats. Other nllers in contemporary WesteⅡ I Europe,without flxing a residential palace,traveled with their suites from one place to anothe■ Since their courts moved around,a capital was not flxed in one place,which was not conducive for development of the bureaucracy.In the kingdoms of England,France and Ge.11.any9 those who supported the kings were anstocrats and cle cs who ac― companied the kings.The kings'goverlment ofEcials were,in general,ansto― crats of lower ranks who were the kings'vassals.The kings and anstocrats shared the salne Christian culture. In these monarchies,there was not such marked difference be● ″een kings and arlstocrats as seen in the kingdom of Siciし In the kingdom of Sicil"however9 there was a developed bureaucracy and bureaucrats had varied cultural backgrounds. The kings and these bu― reaucrats took a stand against the aristocrats,who had solely Latin Ch backgrounds.In fact,the keynote ofthe political history ofthe kingdon■ stian was a process in which the kings together with bureaucrats held down the aristo― crats and cities of the peninsula.The kings and bureaucrats,who had differ‐ ent cultural backgrounds but were highly educated and cultured,took a stand against aristocrats who were not well cultured but trained as warriors. It should not be forgotten,howevet that this line of confrontation was visible only during the peacetime.During the wartime,a line of confrontation was drawn within aristocrats and cities that had llnilitary powen Aristocrats and cities were divided into a pro‐ king group and an anti¨ king one,and fought amongst each other9 while bureaucrats were usually on the side This suggests that even the mighty Nollllan kings supported by crats were by no lncans absolute.The strong No■ 11lan kingship in fact only made possible by a delicate balance ofpower among cities,and bureaucrats. ofthe kings. the bureau‐ of Sicily was aristocrats,